Managers plan, organize, hire staff, motivate and lead a department or a company or an organization. They use human, technological and financial resources to accomplish their goals. Those in management positions work with support staff and strive to accomplish defined objectives. A manager is expected to offer strategies to high level managers so his department can better meet the company's objectives. In addition an effective manager knows when and how to delegate tasks and provides innovation.

Managers are employed in practically every industry. The three basic levels are Top-level manager, middle manager and lower manager. Typically the title gives an indication of the degree of authority for the position. For example, the general manager has the overall responsibility for a company or an organization.

Top-level managers typically need a thorough understanding of management roles and skills. They're usually responsible for strategic decisions. Middle managers have the task of carrying out the objectives of top-level management. Lower-level managers strive to carry out the plans developed by high-level and mid-level managers.

Top-level managers need to continually asses their progress and provide middle and lower-level managers with an idea of the future plans for each department. Middle-level and lower-level managers may add their own plans to the larger plan.

General managers must keep in mind both the client's needs and the company's objectives when creating business strategies and overseeing the daily operations. General managers usually oversee the revenue and cost elements for a company.


  • Coordinate the activities of a department
  • Develop reports for upper management
  • Oversee support staff and perhaps other managers
  • Make presentations
  • Manage a budget
  • Collaborate with other department managers
  • May work directly with clients
  • Hire and train employees
  • Enforce company policies
  • Strive to meet company's objectives

Job Characteristics

A manager needs skills such as leadership, motivational communication and interpersonal. Working well with support staff and other managers, setting and meeting deadlines and taking care of conflicts among staff members are important aspects of the occupation. Managers should have effective coaching and leadership abilities, should be detail oriented and have good problem solving skills.

Employment Outlook

Management salaries vary greatly depending on factors such as management level, responsibility level, the size of the company and the industry. In 2008 the median annual wage for general managers was $91,570. Many companies offer managers bonuses and stock options. Since businesses typically prefer to promote from within the company, lower-level managers with effective leadership abilities that have been able to meet company goals may move up to middle and upper management level positions. Some upper-level managers advance into directorship and executive positions.

Education, Certification, and Licensing

Education requirements vary by the management position and the company or organization. Some employers require a bachelor's or an associate degree or some post-secondary education for manager jobs. Some management positions require a master's degree in business administration (MBA). Some helpful courses are project management, time management, interpersonal relations, finance, business law and accounting. Lower level managers seeking to move up to higher level positions may need a college degree.

A college degree is often necessary for management positions, however not all employers require a college degree. Typically, several years of experience is required to move up to a management job. Workers must show they have the skills to be effective in a management position. A solid understanding of the company's computer system helps a worker to be promoted to a management job. Some companies provide a management training program which is often an excellent way to acquire an entry-level management job.


Major Employers

The top job providing industries for managers are wholesalers, healthcare facilities, business service companies, banks, government agencies, retail businesses, insurance companies and schools.

Schools for Managers are listed in the Browse Schools Section.

Metro Areas Sorted by Total Employment for

Listed below are the 10 largest metro areas based on the total number of people employed in Managers jobs , as of 2016

Metro Area Total Employment Annual Mean Salary
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim 15,660 $131,230
San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward 9,860 $146,040
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell 8,510 $119,100
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue 6,640 $126,910
San Juan-Carolina-Caguas 5,930 $64,140
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington 5,710 $128,770
Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson 5,690 $73,400
Baltimore-Columbia-Towson 5,560 $112,440
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach 5,120 $108,210
Denver-Aurora-Lakewood 5,050 $138,300

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Total employment and salary for professions similar to managers

Source : 2016 Occupational Employment Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, BLS.gov

Most Popular Industries for

These industries represent at least 1% of the total number of people employed in this occupation.

Industry Total Employment Percent Annual Median Salary
Government 96,020 26% $87,940
Professional And Technical Services 36,370 10% $104,650
Business Management 32,320 9% $103,830
Education 27,600 7% $76,840
Hospital 14,350 4% $81,800
Insurance 13,080 3% $94,930
Office Services And Staffing 11,600 3% $78,190
Banking And Credit 8,150 2% $97,270
Traditional Publishing 8,130 2% $96,350
Non-profit 7,150 2% $76,230
Durable Goods Wholesale 6,830 1% $94,680
Electronics And Computer 6,650 1% $113,840
Department And General Stores 5,060 1% $56,120
Chemicals 4,410 1% $104,570
Telecommunications 4,290 1% $100,780
Non-durable Goods Wholesale 4,070 1% $96,990
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We have some additional detailed pages at the state level for Managers.

Numbers in parentheses are counts of relevant campus-based schools in the state; online schools may also be available.

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